Maria] and in memory of patris mei Waltheri et matris me Ermengardis, by charter dated V Kal Jun 1194Walterus de Arnestein donated advocatiam x mansorum in villa Salbecke to Magdeburg St.
However, no example has yet been found of a proven family connection between these early individuals and later noble families in Saxony.
A tantalising glimpse into the possibilities is provided by what could be termed "parallel" families which can be partially reconstructed from relationships between ecclesiastical dignitaries which are referred to in primary sources.
The northern part of Westfalia, from the North Sea coast southwards approximately as far as Cloppenburg, which was later dominated by the duchy of Oldenburg, is categorised as Oldenburg.
The southern part of Westfalia towards the Lower Rhine area remains as Westfalia.
Maria] and in memory of patris mei Waltheri et matris me Ermengardis by charter dated V Kal Jun 1194Walterus de Arnestein donated advocatiam x mansorum in villa Salbecke to Magdeburg St.
Maria, for the souls of conjugis me Gertrudis filiique mei Wichmanni [monk at Magdeburg St. Her parentage and marriage are indicated by the charter 1229 under which [her son] Fridericus comes in Bichelingen..avunculo suo Alberto de Arnsten...
The best examples are the extensive families of the counts (later princes) of Anhalt, dukes of Brunswick, counts of Holstein and counts of Oldenburg, all of whom started from modest beginnings.
Details of each of these families are set out in their own respective documents.
The northern part of Engern, between the Weser and Elbe rivers, is categorised as Stade, the principle county in the area.
The territory of Ostfalia is broken down into Braunschweig in the north-west (south of the Elbe as far south as Hildesheim, which evolved into the duchy of Braunschweig and Lneburg), Northeim directly south of Braunschweig, Harz to the east of Northeim and Anhalt further to the east of Harz, while the remaining area to the north-east is called Ostfalia.
Any geographical division of the duchy of Saxony is arbitrary and to some extent anachronistic.