Some modern scholars characterise Revelation's author as a putative figure whom they call "John of Patmos".The bulk of traditional sources date the book to the reign of the emperor Domitian (AD 81–96), and the evidence tends to confirm this.Eastern Orthodoxy treats the text as simultaneously describing contemporaneous events (events occurring at the same time) and as prophecy of events to come, for which the contemporaneous events were a form of foreshadow.
The ten horns represent the ten names of the leaders of the Umayyad dynasty: Abu Sufyan, Muawiya, Yazid, Marwan, Abd al-Malik, Walid, Sulayman, Umar, Hisham, and Ibrahim.
Some names were re-used, as in the case of Yazid II and Yazid III and the like, which were not counted for this interpretation.
In addition, there are numerous papyri, especially that of p Revelation 6.2: And I saw, and behold a white horse: and he that sat on him had a bow; and a crown was given unto him: and he went forth conquering, and to conquer.
White Rider from Tolkovy Apocalyps, Moscow, 17th century Revelation has a wide variety of interpretations, ranging from the simple message that we should have faith that God will prevail ("symbolic interpretation"), to complex end time scenarios ("futurist interpretation"), The seven heads of the dragon are symbolic of the seven provinces dominated by the Umayyads: Damascus, Persia, Arabia, Egypt, Africa, Andalusia, and Transoxania.
1: 2) or even" Jesus "(Rev 1: 9), and similar words in dozens of other verses.
Conventional understanding until recently was that Revelation was written to comfort beleaguered Christians as they underwent persecution at the hands of a megalomaniacal Roman emperor, but much of this has now been jettisoned: Domitian is no longer viewed as a despot imposing an imperial cult, and it is no longer believed that there was any systematic empire-wide persecution of Christians in his time.The current view is that Revelation was composed in the context of a conflict within the Christian community of Asia Minor over whether to engage with, or withdraw from, the far larger non-Christian community: Revelation chastises those Christians who wanted to reach an accommodation with the Roman cult of empire.This is not to say that Christians in Roman Asia were not suffering, for withdrawal from, and defiance against, the wider Roman society imposed very real penalties; Revelation offered a victory over this reality by offering an apocalyptic hope: in the words of professor Adela Yarbro Collins, "What ought to be was experienced as a present reality." Dionysius (248 AD), bishop of Alexandria, disciple of Origen wrote that the Book of Revelation could have been written by Cerinthus although he himself did not adopt the view that Cerinthus was the writer.Doubts resurfaced during the Protestant Reformation. Martin Luther called it "neither apostolic nor prophetic" in the 1522 preface to his translation of the New Testament (he revised his position with a much more favorable assessment in 1530), and it was the only New Testament book on which John Calvin did not write a commentary.While the Codex Vaticanus does not include it, the other major manuscripts that do are the Codex Sinaiticus (4th century), Codex Alexandrinus (5th century), and Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus (5th century).He very frequently combines multiple references, and again the allusional style makes it impossible to be certain to what extent he did so consciously.